Tag Archives: capitalism

Historical transformations of knowledge in political economy: minimally necessary information

By Fazal Rahman, Ph.D.                  March 1, 2016

Knowledge and understanding of political economy are fundamental to understanding the nature, processes, and developments of any politico-economic and social systems, including capitalism, imperialism, socialism, and communism. After Marx, Engels, and Lenin, the most comprehensive, truthful, and in-depth works on this and related subjects were published by the Soviet political economists and social scientists, who had done thorough studies in these areas and had integrated and incorporated the contemporary data, information, and developments into their publications (see for example, 1, 2, 3, 4). Soviet philosophers and sociologists had also made such contributions in the closely related, intertwined, and important areas of philosophy and sociology (example, 4). After the capitalist counter-revolution and restoration of capitalism in Russia and other former Soviet republics, along with socialism, such works and their authors have also disappeared from the literary and intellectual horizons. Overwhelming majority of American and European “leftists”, “socialists”, and even “Marxists”, were always astoundingly ignorant of such works, and had very limited acquaintance with even the voluminous writings of Marx, Engels, and Lenin. And yet, they have no hesitation in passing wholesale, contentless, and empty judgments on the nature of the politico-economic system of the former USSR and other former socialist countries, which they brand as “state capitalist”, parroting some of the equally ignoramus and/or biased leftist stars, like Noam Chomsky, Richard Wolff, Howard Zinn, and Stephen Resnick, some of whom have written sharp and accurate empirical and factual critiques of American capitalism and imperialism, but integrated them in erroneous, flawed, biased, ineffective, and solutionless theoretical frameworks (see my critique in this regard, 5).  Criticism and identification of the existing problems, no matter how accurate, are only of limited use at best, if effective and feasible solutions are not proposed.  Solutions of such macro-level politico-economic and social problems also require accurate theoretical framework and foundations.  These and other such writers lack such theoretical framework and foundations, and not only fail to propose any effective and feasible solutions, but preach against those discovered by the founders of Marxism-Leninism-the only effective, necessary, and feasible solutions- the implementation of which had resulted in successful socialist revolutions in Russia, China, Eastern Europe, Cuba, Vietnam and other countries.   Their betrayals and capitalist counterrevolutions in Russia and China-the former giants of socialism-also led to the betrayals and capitalist counterrevolutions in most other former socialist countries.  It is beyond the scope of this brief article to identify and analyze the nature and causes and the transient successes of these betrayals and capitalist counterrevolutions. Continue reading

Biosocial and epigenetic relativity of human nature: Relative to political economy, technology, and culture.

By Fazal Rahman, Ph.D.

Written 1982.     Posted on September 7, 2015

It is a question of the Third World starting a new history of Man, a history which will have regard to the sometimes prodigious theses which Europe has put forward, but which will also not forget Europe’s crimes, of which the most horrible was committed in the heart of man, and consisted of the pathological tearing apart of his functions and the crumbling away of his unity.”
Frantz Fanon

The Wretched of the Earth, (Fanon, 1963, p. 315).

We all live under the constant threat of our own annihilation. Only by the most outrageous violation of ourselves have we achieved our capacity to live in relative adjustment to a civilization apparently driven to its own destruction.
R. D. Laing

The Politics of Experience/The Bird of Paradise (R.D. Laing, 1967)

Abstract

This and an earlier paper (Rahman 1980) have ventured into the terra incognita and focused on the effects of social environment on the epigenetic and biosocial regulation of human nature.  Undoubtedly, there are also the effects of natural and physical environment on such regulation, which are also important to investigate.  Various research studies with other forms of life, cited in the Review of Literature in these papers, reveal how changes in the internal and external physical environmental factors cause corresponding epigenetic and gene regulatory changes in various organisms.

A dialectical theory is developed in these papers on the dialectical and relative nature and regulation of human nature, in relation to and in interactions with the politico-economic, mass psychological, and cultural systems and processes of the social environment.  The main focus is on the totally un-researched and unknown areas and effects of such regulation on the epigenetic and gene regulatory dimensions. Some recent research findings which clearly demonstrate that domestication forces and pressures and directional selection (analogous to changes in the politico-economic and cultural forces and pressures in humans) bring about tangible and heritable gene regulatory changes in some animals are reviewed and correlated with the hypotheses and discoveries of our theoretical research. It is concluded that the imperialist capitalism-science and technology-culture complex, especially in its extremist forms and advanced stages, like those of the US, gives rise to extreme imbalances in the differential socio-genetic regulation of human nature.

Destruction of the ecology of nature is dialectically related to the destruction of the ecology of human nature, both being the historical products of the co-evolution of capitalism and technology. Continue reading

Brief, partial, and necessary critical reviews of some of the stars of American Left: Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri, Richard Wolff, Stephen Resnick, Noam Chomsky, and Chris Hedges

By Fazal Rahman, Ph.D.   Completed August 16, 2015

“To leave error unrefuted is to encourage intellectual immorality.”-Karl Marx

“Dug up a mountain, looking for gold. Only found a mouse. Even that was dead.”-A proverb of South Asia.

“…Fuller of words and emptier.” -Holderlin

Introduction

After the Grand Betrayals of socialism in the USSR, Eastern Europe, and China, all types of opportunists, charlatans, speculators, and slanderers have been trying to jump to the center of the leftist political arena, masquerading as “Marxists”, “socialists”, “anti-capitalists”, and “revolutionaries” etc. Many of them have academic backgrounds and are using their academic, oratorical, and demagogic skills to concoct all types of distortions, corruptions, and perversions of Marxian and Leninian political economy, philosophy, and thought. In doing so, they are taking the utmost advantage of the prevalent ignorance of Marxism, Socialism, Communism, and Politico-economic Revolutions, not only in the general society, but also in most of the academics, intellectuals, and leftists. Some of them are wearing the personae of Marxism, while others are anarchists and anti-communists. They are getting away with astounding slanders, ignorance, falsehoods, and distortions in such an environment. Continue reading

Extremist capitalist class and police brutality in Pakistan: Demolitions of slums in Islamabad

Islamabad demolitions3 Islamabad demolitions1 Islamabad demolitions4 Islamabad demolitions2

Islamabad demolitions6

Pictures: Scenes during and after the demolitions.  Children crying at the loss of their huts, women wailing and protesting, part of the slum after demolitions. A slum woman being dragged and thrown down from the roof of her family hut, by the Pakistani policewomen

The following article was published in the Pakistani English language newspaper on July 30, 2015.  It is self-explanatory and contains a couple of videos showing policemen and policewomen demolishing the overcrowded tiny little miserable shacks, built of mud and whatever thousands of poor workers and their families could find-in a slum, called Afghan Basti, in the I-11 Area of Islamabad-on vacant public land.  Afghan Basti has been there for decades and most of its inhabitants are reported to be Pakistani Pashtuns or Afghan refugees-many of whom are now legal residents of Pakistan-who started arriving there decades ago, as a result of US instigated wars and invasions of Afghanistan.  They are parts of the victims of geopolitical and economic plans and actions of US and NATO imperialism and their Pakistani government and military clients.  Pakistani government, military, and business elites siphoned off billions of dollars from the American and other western aid and military expenditures to their private wealth. The Pashtuns and Afghan refugees built these primitive dwellings with their own hard labor, in the vacant land near Islamabad, at the same time working for very low wages in menial jobs.  Most men work in construction; in fruit and vegetable markets; cleaning the streets, buildings, and houses; as gardeners, plumbers, drivers etc.  Women work for very little pay as domestic servants.  Pakistani upper and middle classes take full advantage of their poverty and exploit them to the maximum, much more so than the Pakistani workers.  Now, after demolishing their dwellings, the government and businesses plan to “develop” that area and build houses for the rich and shopping malls etc., which are extremely profitable for people who have accumulated great amounts of wealth through corruption, drugs and arms smuggling, and other nefarious means, and are able and eager to invest in such ventures.  Estimates of their numbers at this particular slum vary between 8,000 and 20,000, innumerable small children among them. Continue reading

Capitalist-technocratic psychopaths of imperialism vs. the psychopaths of Islamic State (IS)

By Fazal Rahman, Ph.D.                             February 12, 2015

Destruction of a home in Idlib, Syria, by US-led coalition airstrike Japanese journalist Kenji Goto, who was beheaded later

Pictures of the destruction of a home in Idlib, Syria, by US led Coalition’s airstrike, supposedly targeting the IS (Daish), and Japanese journalist Kenji Goto, who was beheaded by the IS later.

After failing to defeat the forces of Islamic State (IS or ISIS or ISIL, also known by its Arabic name Daish) in Iraq and Syria by massive aerial bombardments of the US and its Arab and Western allies, the American President, Barack Obama, has announced sending the American troops there for that purpose, again demonstrating his extraordinary trapezing abilities.  Such escalation will inevitably lead to predicable results and reactions.  The US and its above-mentioned allies are already heavily involved in funding, arming, and training of the so-called moderate anti-government groups in Syria, out of which the Islamic State emerged, to begin with.  Fighters from other groups and other nations, including the US and Europe, have been increasingly joining the IS in its various campaigns. Overwhelming majority of Muslim immigrants in the US and Europe experience demonic types and levels of economic, political, legal, religious, and cultural discrimination, exclusion, and oppression.  That is one of the major reasons why they, especially the young, identify with the victims of aggression, invasions, domination, injustice, and exploitation in the Muslim countries, by the same powers and power structures-directly as well as through their local collaborators and clients-that oppress them in their centers.  When an Islamic force like the IS emerges that achieves significant successes against all odds, many victimized Muslims-especially the Sunnis-gravitate towards it.    Such growth and development of IS forces is very likely to multiply after the involvement of US ground forces.   Whatever the US imperialism does in that region creates more and more sinister destructions and losses of life and means of living.  None of this would have happened if the US had left Iraq alone and not invaded it. Continue reading

The Charlie Hebdo Affair in France: Is it a matter of defendable free speech or sadistic desecration and humiliation of Muslims and Islam’s holy figures

Protest in Zinder, Niger, against Charlie Hebdo-4 people killed, dozens injured

Demonstration against Charlie Hebdo in Niger (picture added on January 20, 2015)

Fazal Rahman, Ph.D.        Completed January 11, 2015

During 2012, a desecrating, defaming, and slandering film against Prophet Muhammad, Islam, and Muslims-made in the US-sparked numerous angry riots in many Muslim countries, resulting in many deaths, injuries, and arrests.  The current Charlie Hebdo affair in France is very similar in its nature and effects.  This author had analyzed the nature and causes of the Muslim reactions to that film in his September 27, 2012 article, “  Deeper context and causes of the Muslim demonstrations against the anti-Islamic film. Structural and personal biases of US media: Example of interviews of Don Lemon of CNN” ( https://imperialismandthethirdworld.wordpress.com/2012/09/27/deeper-context-and-causes-of-the-muslim-demonstrations-against-the-anti-islamic-film-structural-and-personal-biases-of-us-media-example-of-interviews-of-don-lemon-of-cnn-by-fazal-rahman-phd/ ).  As the nature, causes, and effects of the desecrating film and Charlie Hebdo’s desecrating, defaming, inflammatory, and obscene publications are the same or similar, some of the relevant contents of the earlier paper are also being included in this article. Continue reading

Effects of the contemporary technological model on the genetic regulation of inner human faculties

By Fazal Rahman, Ph.D.

A note on the background of this paper

The following article on the biosocial regulation of human nature was published in the interdisciplinary scientific journal, Journal of Social and Biological Structures, in 1980.  It contained a new and original theory on the interactions of science and technology, culture, human nature, capitalism etc.  Another more comprehensive paper, Biosocial regulation of human nature by social systems-science and technology-culture complexes, was written in 1982, in which the original theory and contents were refined and elaborated.  The latter paper was not published.  However, I posted it on this site in 2015, under a different title, with the following link:  

https://imperialismandthethirdworld.wordpress.com/2015/09/07/biosocial-and-epigenetic-relativity-of-human-nature-relative-to-political-economy-technology-and-culture-by-fazal-rahman-phd/ 

These papers and their theory are extremely relevant to the continuing and multiplying dehumanization, injustice, inequality, wars and conflicts, and various other sinister developments on this planet.  The priests and high priests of Advanced Capitalist-Imperialist Technocratic Civilization are blindly, demonically, and pathologically obsessed with technocracy and the profits and powers that it creates, through knowledge, information, manipulation, exploitation, and pollution of nature. Even though there is now a great deal of information on the negative and destructive effects of all this on nature, its life supporting systems, and ecology, there is almost none on the human nature and its inner ecology.  The inner ecology of human nature has been, and continues to be, disrupted, deformed, and destroyed, the Human Soul-source of the spiritual-emotional parts-being its greatest casualty.  Human Reason also underwent extreme reductionisms and is now reduced to capitalist-technological rationality, under the above civilization.  This is indeed a most sinister development, as it distorts, perverts, and deforms both the Human Soul and the Human Reason.

In the Advanced Capitalist-Imperialist Technocratic Civilization, the Human Reason is progressively transformed into Capitalist-Technological Rationality, among scientists, technicians, various types of capitalists, politico-economic leaders, and overwhelming majority of the populations.  It becomes the dominant faculty in the mass mental apparatus, on the expense of various other human faculties, especially those that are connected with and are expressions of the Human Soul.  Fragmented and abstracted from the Human Soul, and compartmentalized, the Capitalist-Technological Rationality increasingly serves and empowers capitalist-imperialist injustice, inequality, exploitation, aggression, domination, brutality, selfishness, big and small lies, hypocrisy, etc.,-in a word, Evil-both on the national and international levels.  On the international level, this is frequently manifested in brutal, atrocious, and unjust imperialist wars and conflicts.  The Advanced Capitalist-Technological Rationality becomes increasingly transformed into Sinister Insanity, which is also exported to rest of world.

Capitalism, especially the advanced capitalism, in the form of imperialism, is the greatest eroder, distorter, perverter, and destroyer of Human Soul, the seat of all the higher human qualities and values, which, in mentally and spiritually healthy, unalientated, and unreified humans, integrates and regulates all the diverse faculties, drives, needs, and actions, including those of the Reason and Intellect.  Reduction of Reason and Intellect to Capitalist Technological Rationality (CTR) and tailoring and submission of Soul to its requirements-as has been done in the Advanced Capitalist-Imperialist Technocratic Civilization (ACITC)-perverts, disrupts, and destroys the very foundation of the inner ecology of human nature.  This is the subjective basis of all the objective evils and injustices, with which the ACITC has saturated and polluted this planet, including the mass psychology and human nature of overwhelming majority of its own populations, as well as much of the rest of mankind.  Not surprisingly, the most extreme forms of these phenomena are to be found in the current leader of ACITC, the United States of America, from where these radiate to every corner of the planet.  Nothing is left untouched or alone.

Surely, the problems of conditioning and tailoring of human nature also existed in other class-divided systems and societies.  However, the particular type of tailoring being described here is unique to the ACITC, which is also the most efficient and most massive, as it is being automatically regulated and implemented by the most powerful, combined, united, and inextricably intertwined politico-economic, social, cultural, mass psychological, and epigenetic forces of capitalism and technocracy.

All the immense material powers-and systems of class-based national and international relations-of ACITC were achieved with the applications of CTR, resulting in the most diabolical association of capitalism, technological rationality, and elements, components, and forces of nature on this planet.  These powers were contained with the emergence and development of the Communist Civilization (CC) and its Socialist Technological Rationality (STR) and the development of various powers and products-and systems of national and international relations that were striving to create classless societies-with its   applications.  CC and STR had the potential to dialectically preserve and further develop the integrity of the inner ecology of human nature and create a radically new human civilization.  However, in actual practice, due to existential dangers, constant attacks, threats, conspiracies, and life and death struggle with the ACITC and CTR, this potential could only be partially realized.  The extreme hostility and dangers of highly developed technocratic militarism of ACITC did not allow this potential to develop and manifest itself, as it would have in the absence of these.  The CC had to devote large amounts of its resources on countering such mortal dangers.

The greatest setback and blow to the development of a just, good, and humane civilization occurred with the betrayal and destruction of CC and STR in the USSR, Eastern Europe, and China, where capitalism and CTR have been restored.  They are now part of ACITC, even though Russia and China have been increasingly forced into the position of opposition and competing blocks within the ACITC, by the US and EU.  The current international situation is much more dangerous than that of the cold war, as it is characterized by the inter-capitalist and inter-imperialist struggle and competition for resources, markets, exports, spheres of influence and dominance, everywhere on the planet.  The Third World War, in the face of US and NATO aggressions in Afghanistan, Iraq, Yugoslavia, and Libya, was only prevented by the compromise, restraint, and retreat of Russia and China.  However, Russia has now been pushed into a corner in the new Ukrainian conflicts on its border, instigated by its rivals in the US and EU.  After the overthrow of the elected President, fascists, racists, and extremists-who want to turn Ukraine into a base of NATO against Russia-have gained control of the government machinery in Ukraine.  Russia was finally forced to draw a line there and seems to be willing to confront the NATO forces, if necessary.   As far as the Chinese are concerned, their role so far has been ambiguous, as they have been benefiting enormously in their trade and investment relations with the West and rest of the world, and have been very reluctant to rock the boat.  Capitalist westernization of Chinese political economy, society, education system, and culture is in full swing, in spite of the hypocritical admonitions of its political leaders in this regard.  Hundreds of thousands of Chinese students have been sent to the American and European universities.  When they return, most will bring back the western capitalist mass psychology, culture, and behavior.  It remains to be seen how the Chinese will act, if the push comes to shove.  They are also being pushed into a corner and may finally draw a line, like Russia did.

Many of these phenomena and processes are occurring on the mass psychological, cultural, and epigenetic levels. 

This article was written long before epigenetics, involving gene regulation, became accepted and popular among the scientific community. The research information has exploded in this area during the previous twenty years and now it is being applied in all areas of biological, medical, and social sciences, various phenomena being reinterpreted in the light of such neo-Lamarckian discoveries and theories. However, no one has yet come up with such a comprehensive and macro-level theory-integrating politico-economic systems, technocracy, culture, and human nature-as contained in these two papers.

It is self-evident that ultimately it is the humans and their evolving nature that are responsible for what is happening.  Such research is not only not funded, but is suppressed and gets the researchers blacklisted in the various institutions of the Advanced Capitalist-Imperialist Technocratic Civilization.  That is what happened to this author, who funded it from his own meager resources. Continue reading