By Fazal Rahman, Ph.D. October 23, 2014
Third World’s traitors have always been the heroes and darlings of the West, while its real heroes have always been demonized and frequently exterminated.
The 2014 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to two individuals, who did nothing to comply with the requirements of Nobel’s specifications, and as shown below in the article, one of them, Malala did the opposite. Her various national and international activities, and her inflation to grotesque proportions in the West by the media and the powers-that-be-in the service of Pakistan-US-NATO state terrorism in Afghanistan and Pakistan-have caused the intensification of conflicts and tensions. The alleged attack on her by the Taliban was systematically magnified and presented internationally, with important facts deliberately omitted and substituted with lies. After that, US and NATO as well as domestic pressures greatly increased on the Pakistani government and military to launch a military operation in North Waziristan and other tribal areas, on the border of Afghanistan. That operation has been launched and has caused enormous devastation, losses of life and property, and one million Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). The international use and magnification of the incidence of Malala was one of the causes of this new Pakistan-US state terrorism.
Among other things, the reaction to this award in the West shows the deformation of mass psychology, under the prolonged conditioning of the most powerful politico-economic forces of imperialism and its false-consciousness-creating propaganda systems.
Nobel, Nobel Peace Prize Committee, Norway, NATO, and Afghanistan
Alfred Nobel (1833–1896), the Swedish creator of the five Nobel prizes-the Peace Prize being one of them- was a business leader, inventor, engineer, and chemist. He was the inventor of dynamite and ballistite and had established an armaments manufacturing and production company in Sweden. His father was also employed in explosives and armaments production in Russia. During his lifetime, Nobel was making his fortune in the production of armaments and explosives and was indeed one of the important merchants of death. All that is overlooked now because, in his will, he left 31,225,000 Swedish kronor (equivalent to 250 million U.S. dollars in 2008), accumulated from those war related businesses, to fund the Nobel Prizes.
His Will specified that the Peace Prize be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. It further stated that “the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who in the preceding year “shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.”
The 2014 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to two individuals, who did nothing to comply with the above requirements of Nobel’s specifications, and as shown below, one of them, Malala did the opposite. Her various national and international activities, and her inflation to grotesque proportions in the West by the media and the powers-that-be-in the service of Pakistan-US-NATO state terrorism in Afghanistan and Pakistan-have caused the intensification of conflicts and tensions. The alleged attack on her by the Taliban was systematically magnified and presented internationally, with important facts deliberately omitted and substituted with lies. After that, US and NATO as well as domestic pressures greatly increased on the Pakistani government and military to launch a military operation in North Waziristan and other tribal areas, on the border of Afghanistan. That operation has been launched and has caused enormous devastation, losses of life and property, and one million Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). The international use and magnification of the incidence of Malala was one of the causes of this new Pakistan-US state terrorism.
The current members of Norwegian Nobel Peace Prize Committee are politicians, most have been members of the Parliament and some have held various cabinet and other positions. Nobel’s will only specified that the Peace Prize be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. It did not say that the committee members were to be from the current or former members of the parliament, politicians, or government officials. Chair of the Nobel Committee, Thorbjørn Jagland is Secretary-general of the Council of Europe, was President of the Storting (Parliament) 2005-2009, Prime Minister 1996-1997, Foreign Minister 2000-2001, Member of the Storting 1993-2009. He has a long history of being a politician and government official. However, he has no expertise in the issues of peace, justice, and war etc. Kaci Kullmann Five, Deputy chair of the Nobel Committee, has similar background. She was member of the Storting, 1981-97, Cabinet Minister for Trade, Shipping and European Affairs, 1989-90, and Chairman of the Conservative Party, 1991-94. The other three members, Inger-Marie Ytterhorn, Berit Reiss-Andersen, and Gunnar Stålsett, also have political and legal backgrounds. None of the five committee members are qualified to judge the issues of peace, justice, and war comprehensively or to select nominees for awards, as specified by Nobel in his Will. It must also be noted that the current Secretary General of NATO, Jens Stoltenberg, is a former Prime Minister of Norway.
Norway is a member of NATO and its military forces have been part of the US and NATO imperialist invasion of Afghanistan in 2001. The Nobel Peace Prize Committee consists of thoroughly political and politicized leaders and members, and they acted in the service of their government’s policy and actions in Afghanistan, as well as a structural part of US, EU, and NATO imperialism. That is the essence of their decision. It would be hardly surprising if most of the nominators are also similar to them. The EU award of Sakharov prize to her has the same essence. In spite of their all-out efforts, gathering the military forces of 50 countries, conducting the longest (13 years) high tech US and NATO war in history, and committing innumerable atrocities in Afghanistan, they are losing the war to primitively equipped and ragtag resistance forces of national liberation, which have incomparably less and meager financial and other resources, but have incomparable resilience, tenacity, passions and dedication to national liberation and freedom, opposition to foreign occupation, and expertise and experience in waging guerilla warfare in the geographical, cultural, religious, and politico-economic conditions of their country-all organized around the spirit and faith in the religion of Islam. All the imperialists can now do is to come up with the absurd and grotesque specimens like Malala and inflate her maximally to try to cover up their humiliating defeat in one of the poorest and technologically least developed countries in the world. They have spent close to a trillion dollars on that war of occupation and aggression. Wasting a few millions more on Malala Fraud will not make any difference. That relatively small investment is, in fact, producing the desired public opinion results in the West, which were aimed at demonizing the enemy-Taliban-and attempting to create a virtual reality by perverting their own high-tech barbaric war of occupation and aggression against the forces of national liberation into a war of civilization against barbarism. Countless sheeple are swallowing and internalizing that perverted virtual reality.
The Malala Affair
The whole Malala affair has been one of the most asinine, self-evident, and sinister frauds ever committed in the history of psychological and propaganda warfare. It was systematically initiated by the BBC, in the form of some dictated anti-Taliban, and implicitly anti-Islamic and pro-Western blogs by an ignorant, ambitious, and treacherous young woman, Malala-with the participation and guidance of her family and BBC sponsors-in Swat, which is located in the northwestern part of Pakistan, close to the Afghanistan border. The Pakistani Taliban in Swat and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) were supporting and participating in the national liberation war of their brethren in Afghanistan and were also fighting against the military and security forces of Pakistan that were collaborating with the invaders. The Malala plot was hatched in the service of the invasion and aggression of US, UK, and other NATO forces, and their main clients in the area, that is, the governments and militaries of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Malala was used as a bait to provoke and trap Taliban into attacking her, after which the whole western news and other media would be mobilized to demonize the Taliban and create international and regional public opinion in favor of enhanced military operations and invasions of FATA and North Waziristan by the Pakistani military forces. It is not certain who actually attacked her, even though some telephonic and electronic admissions have been attributed to Taliban. Some sources even assert that she was not attacked at all and the whole drama was staged to demonize the Taliban, as part of a larger psychological warfare project. After the alleged attack, US and NATO pressures on the Pakistani government for military invasion of North Waziristan increased greatly, as did the clamoring for such invasion by the non-FATA and non-Pashtun Pakistanis in various newspapers and other media. Regardless of what actually happened, far from promoting peace, Malala has served as a tool for escalating war and state terrorism, violence, destruction of innumerable lives and properties, and creation of a million internally displaced persons (IDPs)-including hundreds of thousands of male and female children, suffering, among other things, the lack of education and schools -from FATA and North Waziristan, who are suffering great deprivations and miseries. The hundreds of thousands of North Waziristan and other FATA children were going to school and receiving education before this new state terrorism of the Pakistani military forces, in the service of US and NATO imperialists, coordinated with the US drone attacks. Countless men, women, girls, and boys have been murdered and injured by the Pakistani-US-NATO state terrorism in FATA and North Waziristan. Before that, the Pakistani state terrorism had caused massive destruction of lives and property in Swat and other areas and two million IDPs. And this little tool of the Pakistani-US-NATO state terrorism is traveling around the world, pretending and claiming to be trying to create schools and education for girls in Pakistan, as if these did not exist already! There were thousands of girls going to schools in her hometown in Swat and they continue to get education there and so do the millions everywhere else in Pakistan. The very premise of her claims and pretensions is a naked, self-evident, and verifiable lie. Are the Western governments, media, and Nobel Prize nominators and committee so ignorant that they do not know this? Impossible. The truth is that they are fully aware of it and it was created by the Western governments, media (BBC playing a central role in it), and their regional collaborators. After the plan of grooming her as a bait was put into action, they put in motion their global propaganda and disinformation systems and singled out and abstracted the issue of education-which was tailored, falsified, and distorted to fit it into their demonization and disinformation agenda-from all the numerous issues of extreme injustice, inequality, poverty, corruption, class conflicts, imperialist invasion of Afghanistan and the national liberation resistance to it by the Taliban and others,US drone attacks in FATA, brutal repression and destruction of many areas of FATA-including Swat-by the Pakistani military and other security forces, in collaboration and coordination with the imperialist forces, etc., and fed it into Malala’s head, who was then enabled to travel and parrotize it internationally. In face of all the evidence to the contrary, they continue to lie that she was attacked because she wanted to go to school and get education! It is true that many schools in Swat and other areas of FATA were attacked and damaged by the Taliban as well as by the Pakistani security forces. The reason for these attacks was that those schools were being used as barracks for the soldiers and sometime by the Taliban, and not because they were educating students.
It is indubitable that Malala and her family were heavily bribed and rewarded for their services to the Western and US imperialism. They have found the goose that lays the golden eggs and are running around the world to find its progenies. Most recently, they found one in the Nobel Peace Prize Committee. Even though, rewarding traitorous individuals and groups, by the West, that serve imperialist interests, against countries, politico-economic systems, and organizations, which are struggling for national liberation and against imperialism, or competing with it, like China, is nothing new, the extent to which it has been carried out in case of Malala, is beyond all the boundaries of the grotesque. However, it is perfectly logical from the Western imperialist perspectives, as it is achieving its objectives, because of the highly manipulable, disinformed and disinformable, and brainwashed and brainwashable populations in the imperialist centers and their Third World peripheries; incomparably weaker abilities of Taliban and their allies to counter these enormous storms of disinformation, propaganda, and dramas, as well as some other tactical and political weaknesses and blunders; and drastically changed balance of forces and their realignment in the aftermaths of the betrayal of socialism in the former USSR and China, of which the US and NATO are taking maximum advantage, etc.
Such methods are routine in the arsenals of Western imperialist powers. Some recent examples are the award of the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize to Liu Xiaobo, a so-called Chinese dissident, who is not satisfied with the current level of restoration of capitalism in China and was active in subversive activities against the Chinese state and politico-economic system for the purpose of establishing a US type of extremist capitalist system there, and the elevation of a similarly shallow, ignorant, and naive Cuban woman blogger, Yoani Sanchez, to bizarre levels of prominence and publicity. Yoani also has been given numerous prestigious international awards for her stupid little blogs, betrayals of the Cuban revolution-of which she has been a beneficiary, receiving free education, healthcare, housing etc.-, and advocacy of the restoration of capitalism (covered up under the masks of “democracy”, “freedom”, and “privacy”). Such shallow, ignorant, treacherous, and naïve “dissidents”, in the countries and forces that are considered to be the enemies of US imperialism, are given absurd levels of exposures and publicity by the mass media of the US and other Western countries, while even the most knowledgeable, profound, original, insightful, and creative political dissidents in their own territories are shunned like plague, and, as a result, very few people know about them or their ideas and work. This is just a small glimpse of the real nature of the “free” and “independent” mass media of the West in general, and the US in particular. As they also dominate the news, analysis, and mass media culture and mass psychology in much of the rest of the world, such phony and Orwellian “freedom” and “independence” are also internationalized.
In two 2012 articles, this author had analyzed the Malala affair in some detail, in which some of the specific facts and evidence, which were known at that time-e.g., association with the BBC, meetings with some top US and Pakistani government and military officials, lies about the education situation in Swat and other areas etc.-were included, in addition to the more logical analyses. The reader is referred to the following two links in that regard:
Between 1901 and 2014, along with awards to many outstanding promoters of peace, the Nobel Peace Prize Committee has also awarded its prizes to numerous mass murderers; oppressors; enemies of peace, justice, and national liberation; like the current US President Barack Obama, EU, Shimon Peres, Yizhak Rabin, Menachem Begin, Henry Kissinger, US General George C. Marshall, US President Thomas Woodrow Wilson, and US President Theodore Roosevelt. In many cases, awards were made to the leaders of both the aggressors and war-mongers and their victims, hence obliterating all justice and truth and canceling the effects. Others like Liu Xiaobo, Al Gore, US President Jimmy Carter, UN and Kofi Annan, Andrei Sakharov, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn ,Mikhail Gorbachev, Elie Wiesel, and Lech Walesa were awarded because of their services to imperialism, restoration of capitalism in the former socialist countries, anti-communism, or their positions and prestige in the West. It should be noted that four of the Nobel Peace Prizes were awarded to the Presidents, and a fifth to a former Vice-President, of the USA, which has had a long history of being the most militarist, violent, and imperialist nation in the world, with constant invasions, wars, and occupations of other countries, and support and installation of some of the most brutal dictatorships and systems of inequality and injustice, all over the world. None were awarded to the leaders of communist and socialist countries that struggled for real peace and social justice in the world. Extreme anti-communist bias has been self-evident throughout the history of the Nobel Peace Prize awards.
Considering the origins and awardings of the Nobel prizes, it is astonishing that they carry such prestige. Perhaps, it is the fame, vanity, money, and elitism, which fuel it. In view of such corruption and misdeeds, there is an urgent need to rewrite the nature and goals of the Nobel Peace Prizes. As there can be no real peace without justice, justice needs to be included both in the name and goals of the prize. It should be renamed to Nobel Peace and Justice Prize. Blacks in the US have hit the nail on the head and have identified the real nature of peace, in their slogan “No Justice, No Peace.” That simple slogan is incomparably more meaningful than all the high-flown, hypocritical, and sophisticated verbal diarrheas of academics and other elites. As such changes in the Nobel Foundation are very unlikely, an alternative and comparable Peace and Justice Prize needs to be created. There are abundant resources in many countries, like China, Russia, Brazil, India, and oil rich Middle Eastern countries, etc., to do that. Why has no one thought of this so far?
Only two awardees had refused to accept the Nobel prizes, on the basis of political, intellectual, and ethical integrity. Le Duc Tho, the North Vietnamese peace negotiator in the Paris peace negotiations, was awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize with Henry Kissinger, the US Secretary of State in the Nixon and Ford administrations and, before that, a long time participant in designing and implementing the policies of US imperialism globally. As a result of those policies, democratic governments were overthrown in many Latin American and other countries and were replaced by brutal military dictatorships. He was involved, among others, in the planning of the military coup in Chile, in which the elected President Salvador Allende was murdered in 1973. There was an escalation of US war and bombings in Southeast Asia, before the US was finally defeated in Vietnam and withdrew in great haste, leaving large amounts of war and other materials behind. All this caused enormous losses of lives and economic destruction, as well as suffering, repression, and misery for hundreds of millions of people for decades throughout the world. These were the most sinister crimes against humanity. And yet, one of their main architects, Henry Kissinger, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize! Tho rejected it, while Kissinger accepted it. Jean Paul Sartre, the French Philosopher, also refused to accept the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature. There were four others who also rejected it, but it is claimed that they did that because of pressure from their governments. Hundreds of others jumped on it and considered themselves as being at the very top of Homo sapiens, members of the most elitist club.
Class struggle, imperialism, and Taliban in Pakistan and Afghanistan
The following concrete information provides part of the real context in which the class conflicts and war against US and NATO imperialism are taking place in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Taliban have been totally one-sidedly demonized in the West and the lies, half-truths, lies by omission, and other psychological warfare propaganda have been, and continue to be, repeated endlessly. This is not to deny the Taliban’s flaws, some of which are obviously serious. However, they must be doing something right that attracts the masses to their cause, movement, and fight. That something right includes, among others, the class struggle-on behalf of the peasants and other poor-against the big landlords and other rich, struggle against the invasions of western civilization and culture and preservation of national and Islamic religious identity, and war against the military invasion and occupation of US-led NATO and other foreign forces. On the other hand, the invaders must have been doing something so wrong that in spite of their incomparable military and economic superiority, and after 13 years of all-out efforts, they are losing the war. That something wrong includes, among others, conducting an unjust and atrocious war of occupation; installing and supporting a corrupt, elitist, and puppet regime that had little in common with the masses and much in common with the invaders; obstruction of any changes in the class relations and distribution of land and resources; maintenance of the status quo of extreme class divisions and inequalities; ignoring the history of successful Afghan resistance to foreign invasions and incomprehension of the Afghan character structure; and policies and actions based upon belief in the brute military force, bad faith, and lies-waging an unjust imperialist war of domination and occupation. And the imbeciles imagined that they could win the hearts and minds of those people, who have a history of defeating and expelling numerous powerful invading military forces, after invading their country and committing monstrous atrocities! Of course, like everywhere else, they found plenty of whores. However, the whores cannot win against resistance fighters, for whom national liberation, justice, and anger and hatred of the invaders is more important than their lives, no matter how much you arm, train, feed, and bribe the whores. Whores lack the spiritual and moral strength-the character-which the resistance fighters have.
As the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize involves the Malala affair, which is based upon the demonization of Taliban, this information is crucial to understanding of the real facts, truth, and the context.
British anthropologist, Dr. Nancy Lindisfarne (1), is one of the very few western researchers who have integrated the roles of class struggle and imperialism in her anthropological studies of the successes and popularity of Taliban in Afghanistan and Swat and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Pakistan. She considers them to be the most important factors and causes of the growing strength and popularity of Taliban. Questions of class and imperialism have been systematically excluded by overwhelming majority of western anthropologists and other social scientists in their studies of these areas and conflicts, as well as other areas of the world. That capitalist-imperialist omission renders their research and studies fundamentally flawed and deficient.
Lindisfarne documented the extreme class differences between the few large landowners (Khans) and overwhelming majority of the population of Swat, most of who worked as sharecroppers and workers in Khans’ owned businesses. She also describes the violent class conflicts that took place in Swat and North West Frontier Province (NWFP) during the late 1960s and 1970s. These peasant and working class uprisings were brutally crushed after the military coup and establishment of the dictatorship of General Zia-ul-Haq in 1977. During the 1990s, TNSM, the Tehrik Nifaz-i Shariat Muhammad emerged in Swat in the continuing extreme class inequalities there. Under its leader, Sufi Mohammad, TSNM advocated the imposition of Sharia Law to address the problems of land distribution, land disputes, inefficiency and corruption in the government and court system, and other social problems. After the invasion of Afghanistan by the US and NATO forces in 2001, it started mobilizing people to fight the invaders alongside the Afghan Taliban and their allies. As overwhelming majority of people in Swat and NWFP were passionately opposed to the invasion of Afghanistan, the popularity of TNSM grew rapidly. By 2008, it had gained control of several villages in Swat and in 2009 it controlled all of the major towns of Swat, forcing the government to conclude a ceasefire agreement, in which it ceded all administrative and judicial control to Taliban. The big landowners left Swat as the Taliban gained control and their tenants no longer had to pay rents. Hence, there emerged a radical revolutionary change in the class relations between the oppressors and exploiters, on the one hand, and oppressed and exploited, on the other.
Mullah Fazlullah (also known as Radio Mullah), the current leader of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), the son-in-law of Sufi Mohammad, was active throughout that period and broadcasting his programs in fiery speeches over the radio. The movement became increasingly radicalized and became party of the poor. It started taxing the big landowners and later targeting them and the security forces and administration that were supporting and protecting them. Also in 2006, the Pakistan government was also forced to sign a deal with the Taliban, in which it ceded control of Waziristan to them. The social and economic roots of the conflicts in Waziristan and other areas of FATA were similar to those in Swat.
All these developments were deeply disturbing to the US and other NATO governments and militaries, as these would obstruct their supply routes and increase cross-border cooperation between the TTP and Afghan Taliban. Also, the big landowners and capitalists started shaking in their pants because of the possibility of uprisings of exploited and oppressed peasants and workers throughout Pakistan and their linking up with the advancing Taliban forces. Under US pressure and with its support, a massive military operation was launched in Swat, causing immense losses of lives and properties and creating more than two million IDPs. The Taliban are still there and helping people with their food and other needs. If and when the military forces leave, they are very likely to gain control of Swat and other areas that are currently under military occupation.
Dr. Lindisfarne has drawn similar conclusions about the conflict in Afghanistan, where, for the most part, the feudal tribal chieftains and big landholders owned the country’s water rights and controlled the great bulk of the agricultural product. Smallholders, sharecroppers and agricultural workers remain the majority in the countryside. The urban poor work for wages as cleaners, hairdressers, watchmen and drivers, while other workers are in the pay of warlords, the occupation forces, and the Afghan government. Mullah Omar and other leading figures are popular among the peasants and workers, because, in contrast to the current political and other elites, they share their behavior, culture, and language, and live like them. Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries of the world. According to government figures, unemployment exceeds 33 percent, 56 percent are employed in the agricultural sector, and only 28 percent are literate. Under these conditions, class conflicts are important part of the Taliban-led war against the US and NATO imperialism and the governing Afghan feudal and capitalist classes, which have been sustained militarily and economically by the former. According to Zaeef (2), a former Taliban ambassador to Pakistan, the occupation is failing, not least because “poverty and unemployment are at their peak and the roots of the economy are drying up” and America has “exploited the poverty of Afghans to the utmost.”
The thoroughly conceited politicians, academics, the so-called celebrities-awashed in money that is extracted from their mesmerized fans with constant creations of virtual reality in the movies, TV, concerts etc.-, Nobel Peace Prize Committee members, and countless millions of sheeple are jumping up, thumping their chests, and making sickening condescending noises about being educated and being advocates of education, when they are so totally ignorant and uneducated about the real nature of issues, facts, truth, and context of the Malala affair. What is the nature of education that they received, which has made them so intellectually and ethically dishonest and corrupt? Who would want to be “educated” like that? If the sheeple want to be more than coins in the slot machines of their corporations, businesses, and the capitalist-imperialist governments that serve and implement their interests, they will have to examine the fundamental and great flaws in their own educational systems, which, along with politico-economic and other social forces of the system, brainwashes them to such a degree that their critical thinking and feeling faculties are paralyzed and they run in the directions where the herders lead them. They are drowning in student loans in the US, because of the highest costs of higher education in the world. And, look at what that so-called education has done to them! Among other things, it has mutilated their human nature. What a bargain! Have they not polluted and corrupted the whole world enough already with that type of “education”? After being produced as coins for the above-mentioned slot machines, large numbers of them are finding that the slot machines have been locked and they are barred from entering the slots, because their owners have calculated the number of coins and slots that will produce the maximum profits for them at the other ends of the machines. Unable to find any purity among themselves and having lost much of their real inner self, the sheeple concoct these and flash these onto some exotically dressed and exotic looking foreign young female, which has been concocted and thrown at them by the Grand Puppeteers. One cannot blame that concoction for taking full advantage of this house of mirrors, in which everything appears upside-down and downside-up. Who wouldn’t?
During 2012, I had written two above-mentioned articles on the Malala fraud. I have been extremely reluctant to waste any more time on this. I was hoping that someone else may have written some in-depth analysis and information about this continuing US-EU-NATO-Nobel Theater of the Absurd and Sinister, which would have saved my time and effort for some more important tasks. After searching the Internet, I did not find any such material. Most of the pieces were those of the sheeple, who are applauding Malala and Nobel, and are unable to see through this transparent fraud, or the shallow tweets, which have become fashionable throughout this increasingly Americanized and superficialized world. It shows how the critical thinking of the majority in the US and the West has been atrophied and how easy it is to for the powers-that-be to manipulate and regulate such mass psychology. Sheeple do what they are supposed to. They run in the direction where the herder directs them. It is for this reason that I found it necessary to write this piece, to try to expose some of the real facts and counter the sheeple mass psychology.
- Nancy Lindisfarne. Exceptional Pashtuns? Class Politics, Imperialism and Historiography. Beyond Swat: History and Power along the Afghanistan-Pakistan Frontier, Magnus Marsden and Benjamin Hopkins, (eds.), London: Hurst, 2012.
- Abdul Salam Zaeef, My Life with the Taliban. Pp. 238, 240, London: Hurst, 2010.